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Flu Shot Myths


No more excuses!

You start to see the signs in August and September – “Flu Shots Here”. They are at every pharmacy and medical facility, and your employer may even host a flu shot clinic at work. Some people are on board right away; others have a bevy of excuses why they won’t get a flu shot. “I got a shot last year and got sick from it the next day.” Or “I never get a flu shot and I never get sick.” Or “I’m allergic to eggs so I can’t get the shot.”

Let’s address each of these statements individually because it is important for as many people as possible to become vaccinated:

Can you get the flu from a flu shot?

The short answer is no. First, it takes two weeks for the flu virus to incubate and cause symptoms. If you have the flu shortly after you get a shot, you most likely contracted it somewhere else within the past two weeks and you were going to get sick anyway. Second, flu vaccines are made one of two ways:

  1. Using an “inactivated” viruses which make it non-infectious
  1. Using absolutely no flu viruses at all

Both of these methods result in a vaccine which cannot cause the flu.

If you get the flu more than two weeks after the shot, you most likely contracted a strain of the virus not covered by the shot you received. The CDC formulates the vaccine based on the most likely strains to hit the US in any given year. It is an educated guess, but sometimes another strain finds its way into the US.

If I have never had the flu before, why would I need a flu shot now?

Just because you have never had the flu (or think you have never had the flu), it is possible this year could be the year. Strains of the flu virus are mutating continually and what has not made you sick in the past, may make you sick now. Additionally, you move through the world and interact with other human beings who may not be as resistant to viruses as you think you are. When you contract the flu, you are contagious from around one day before you have symptoms until five to seven days after. Any hard surfaces you get your germs on during this time can remain contagious for up to 48 hours. To be blunt, even when you don’t feel sick, you may be sick and can make others around you sick.

Can I get a flu shot if I am allergic to eggs?

One of the standard questions on the wellness sheet most places have you sign before the shot asks if you are allergic to eggs. The reason is they are covering themselves because most flu vaccines are produced using an egg-based manufacturing process and contain a small amount of egg protein called ovalbumin; however, unless you have severe allergic reactions to eggs (other than simple hives) like respiratory or other reactions requiring medical intervention, you can receive any flu vaccine. Even if you have had a severe reaction to eggs you can still get a flu vaccine, but it is recommended you receive the vaccine in a medical facility equipped to handle a severe allergic reaction and be sure to notify the person administering the vaccine of your allergy. The only people who should not receive a flu vaccine are those who have had a severe reaction to flu vaccines in the past.

OK, maybe I didn’t get the flu from the flu shot, but I still don’t want to get one. Why should I?

As mentioned earlier, we all interact with one another and the number of people we “touch” is exponential. Door knobs, counters, office furniture, grocery carts, and other public shared surfaces, in addition to person-to-person contact, can spread the flu virus. Have you ever been on an airplane with someone who is coughing, sneezing, etc and inwardly groaned because you just knew whatever they had was making its way around the enclosed cabin?

When you get a flu shot, you are not just protecting yourself, you are helping protect everyone around you. Some people are legitimately not able to get the flu shot due to a compromised immune system or advanced age. The very young (babies under 6 months of age are not old enough for the vaccine and are extremely at risk) and the very old are of particular concern.

People who are cardiac compromised run a larger risk of suffering a cardiac event as the result of contracting the flu and should always get a flu shot. In fact, incidences of cardiac visits to hospitals increase during the peak of flu outbreaks.

If a family member contracted Guillain-Barre Syndrome after a flu shot, should I not get one?

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is exceptionally rare and occurs in only 1 or 2 people per million vaccinated. In fact, a person prone to getting GBS is more at risk for getting it after having the flu than after receiving the vaccine. There is no evidence to suggest it is hereditary (which is why it is called a “syndrome” and not a “disease”). GBS is a very serious condition and can have a long recovery time. It is understandable someone who has watched a loved one go through all the stages of GBS, many of which are quite painful, would want to avoid enduring the same circumstances. If a family member has had GBS and you are concerned about getting a flu shot, it is recommended you speak with your doctor about it and decide with them what the best course of action is for you.

I’m still not convinced, what can I do to avoid getting the flu besides a shot?

If you still decide not to receive a flu shot, please take precautions during flu season. Eat healthily and stay hydrated, wash your hands often (especially when you are out in public, and definitely before eating or touching your mouth or nose), disinfect surfaces often in your home and office. If you start feeling ill, minimize your contact with others. If you can stay home from work, you should stay home from work – your co-workers will thank you. Staying home and resting is your best bet for a quick recovery anyway.

Stay healthy!


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Lyme Disease – What Do You Know About It?

Lyme disease is a tick borne bacterial infection that can have life-threatening consequences if untreated. The problem is that Lyme disease symptoms can mimic many other common infections and often goes undiagnosed until severe systemic damage has occurred. Visit the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) website for more information.

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Typical symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. Lyme disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings (e.g., rash), and the possibility of exposure to infected ticks.  Laboratory testing is helpful if used correctly and performed with validated methods. Most cases of Lyme disease can be treated successfully with a few weeks of antibiotics. Steps to prevent Lyme disease include using insect repellent, removing ticks promptly, applying pesticides, and reducing tick habitat. The ticks that transmit Lyme disease can occasionally transmit other tickborne diseases as well.

  • Image showing blacklegged tick adult female, adult male, nymph, and larva

    Blacklegged (Ixodes scapularis) ticks at all life stages

  • Comic with a boy spraying himself with bug repellent

    Learn more about prevention resources for kids

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    Lyme Disease Stories

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He Saved His Dad – Could You Save a Life?

Scout Saves Father During “Terrifying” Life-threatening Situation


Seeing a family member experience a life-threatening situation would be enough to make most people lose their composure, but many Scouts are trained specifically on how to respond in an emergency.

When Scout John H. of the Boy Scouts of America Northern Star Council saw his father in a life-threatening situation, he sprang into action to help save his father’s life.

The family was at home, and John’s father was recovering from two strokes when he experienced an issue. He was eating dinner, and he choked on a piece of food. This caused John’s father to fall to the floor, choking, and unable to get any air.

“I just remember falling over. Then, in the ambulance when I woke up,” John’s father, James, told Fox 9 News.

John heard his mother scream, and he rushed into the room where his father was choking. While his mother called 9-1-1, John used skills he had learned in Scouting to help his father.

“Hearing a thud then running into the room and seeing your dad laying there, turning grey, his lips are blue, on the ground,” John said. “And your mom is on the phone with a 911 operator screaming, it’s a pretty terrifying sight.”

With the life-threatening situation going on, John kept a clear head and did everything correctly to save his father.

“He knew what to do, he started doing it,” John’s mother, Jean, said. “By the time the 9-1-1 dispatcher was telling me ‘do this, do this,’ John was two steps ahead of her.”

For his actions to save his father’s life during a life-threatening situation, John received the Boy Scouts of America Medal of Merit.

To learn more about John’s amazing story of heroism, be sure to watch the video below and read the full article on Fox 9 News.

Photo & video credit: Fox 9 News

As a member of the Communications team at Boy Scouts of America, Nathan Johnson enjoys finding and sharing the stories that inform, inspire, and delight the Scouting family.

© 2015 Boy Scouts of America – All Rights Reserved

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Celebrity Deaths Draw Attention to Cardiac Disease

Forbes Magazine posted an article about the untimely death of Carrie Fisher on December 27, 2016 and her apparent cardiovascular disease. Most of us forget or ignore that cardiovascular disease is still the largest killer of men and women throughout the world by a margin of 6 times the number of deaths compared to the next biggest killer – cancer.

Carrie Fisher’s Heart Attack Is A Wake Up Call For Boomer Women – Forbes

Read the article and ask yourself this question – what can I do about this?  At very least, learn and practice the best techniques we have for surviving sudden cardiac arrest – CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation) and using the AED (Automated External Defibrillator).

A well coordinated response to sudden death starting with an informed and trained public, can potentially revive 15-20% of cardiac arrest victims. When was the last time you took a class or practiced CPR??

M•Stephenson: Licensed Paramedic, Wilderness EMT, Chief Fire Officer, Instructor

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CPR App for Your Phone

I have been using and recommending the “CPR Metronome” Android phone app (also available for I-Phone) for a couple of years. The app is easy to use and can be set to open and start on tap. It can also run in the background while using the phone to talk to 9-1-1 EMS Dispatch for help and guidance.

CPR Metronome will prompt you with the correct rhythm and rate for optimal compressions and breaths. Really – how long can you hum “Staying Alive . . .” ? Of course, proper training can prepare you for the realities of CPR and this app may help you perform this possibly life-saving skill.

Cover art

M•Stephenson: Licensed Paramedic, Wilderness EMT, Chief Fire Officer, Instructor

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Would You Resond to a Cardiac Emergency if it Was Near You?

PulsePoint is a phone app that notifies the user if there is a medical emergency in the area. Users are notified by the local 9-1-1 system of a possible cardiac emergency and shows the closest AED. Even though emergency medical personnel are enroute, you may be near the victim and can provide CPR and AED rescue in the meantime.

The downside to the app is the cost to the sponsoring agency. For instance, for the Austin/Travis County metropolitan area would be approximately $28,000 per year.

If this seems like a good idea to you, please notify your local elected official and educate them about the importance of fast first response.


October 20
When Stephen DeMont collapsed at a Seattle bus stop, PulsePoint alerted off-duty cardiac nurse Madeline Dahl to the nearby need for help.



You know the difference early CPR and defibrillation can make in a Sudden Cardiac Arrest event. Fifty-seven percent of U.S. adults say they’ve had CPR training, and most would be willing to use CPR or an AED to help save a stranger’s life. Yet only 11% say they’ve used CPR in an actual emergency—that’s a number we can increase together.

When that emergency call comes in your team will be ready. But what if someone was already at the scene, applying lifesaving CPR and defibrillation until the EMS team arrived? With PulsePoint, your dispatch system immediately alerts CPR-trained bystanders about a nearby SCA event through the free PulsePoint Respond mobile app, and lets them know the location of the closest AED.




When CPR-trained bystanders receive an alert from PulsePoint Respond, it tells them not only where an SCA event is happening, but also where they can find the nearest AED. But often, data on AED locations can be missing, inaccurate, or simply not detailed enough to make the devices easy to find in an emergency. That’s where the PulsePoint AED app comes in.

With the free PulsePoint AED app, citizens can help even before a life is in danger, by easily identifying public access AEDs throughout your community. Users place the AED location on a map, add business and descriptor information and submit photos of the AED in context of its environment.


  • OCTOBER 12, 2016


    PulsePoint Respond empowers CPR-trained citizens and off-duty professionals to provide critical assistance to cardiac arrest victims UPPER MARLBORO, MD, October 12, 2016 – Today, the Prince George’s County Fire/Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Department (PGFD) joined the PulsePoint Foundation and CTIA Wireless Foundation to bring life-saving technology to the County via the PulsePoint Respond app. The


  • JULY 7, 2016


    PITTSBURGH – Allegheny County Executive Rich Fitzgerald, City of Pittsburgh Mayor William Peduto and City of Pittsburgh Councilman Dan Gilman today announced initiatives to improve public safety services and empower residents to take action while awaiting response by EMS professionals. The press event, which also included partners from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s Department


  • JUNE 1, 2016


    Goal is to recruit 15,000 PulsePoint Citizen Responders SEATTLE (June 1, 2016) – Medic One Foundation and the Seattle Fire Department (SFD) announced today the launch of PulsePoint, a free life-saving mobile app. The Seattle Fire Department is the first agency to launch PulsePoint in King County and hopes to recruit 15,000 PulsePoint citizen responders.


  • MARCH 25, 2016


    Government Technology’s Top 25 Doers, Dreamers, Drivers Revealed Honorees cut through the public sector’s barriers toinnovation and succeed in improving services to citizens SACRAMENTO, Calif. – March 24, 2016 – Government Technology announced its 2016 Top 25 Doers, Dreamers & Drivers – 25 individuals or teams who exemplify transformative use of technology that’s improving the


  • DECEMBER 14, 2015


    PulsePoint empowers CPR-trained citizens and off-duty professionals to provide critical assistance immediately following cardiac arrest SACRAMENTO, CA – Mayor Kevin Johnson and Sacramento-area fire departments have joined with the PulsePoint Foundation to bring life-saving technology to the region via PulsePoint, a mobile app designed to increase citizen awareness of cardiac events beyond a traditional “witnessed”




Seamless integration. Expert support.

The lifesaving potential of PulsePoint is only available in communities where it has been implemented by the local fire or EMS agency through PulsePoint Professional Services.

The PulsePoint Foundation has partnered with Physio-Control to deliver implementation services. In partnership with PulsePoint, their experience with EMS systems nationwide provides unrivaled insight into the most effective ways to effectively integrate PulsePoint, get the word out to the community, and provide the support you need—through your program launch and beyond.

For more than 50 years, Physio-Control has had an unrivaled commitment to quality. And every product and service they deliver is based on a singular vision: a society in which no person dies suddenly as a result of an acute, treatable medical event. Our worldwide partnership with Physio-Control brings together not only the expertise of two groundbreaking medical technology companies, but also a shared passion for helping public agencies improve emergency response and save more lives.


Gantt Arrows

1. Project Management. PulsePoint Professional Services include timely, cost-effective project management, helping ensure a smooth integration and freeing up your internal resources for other critical tasks.

2. CAD Integration. Integrating PulsePoint with your agency’s CAD system allows notifications of SCA events to be sent to citizens through PulsePoint Respond—simultaneous with professional response.

3. AED Support. One of the most powerful features of PulsePoint Respond is its ability to notify bystanders of the nearest AED location.

4. Community Outreach. Once PulsePoint is a part of your community, PulsePoint Professional Services provide a robust set of marketing and public relations tools.



Workday engineers volunteer considerable time and technical expertise to design, develop, and support the PulsePoint applications and infrastructure. Our users, and those they assist, greatly benefit from the extraordinary contributions of this talented team. Our foundation is truly grateful for their years of commitment and support. If you know or meet a Workday employee please let them know that their essential role in PulsePoint engineering has not gone unnoticed.

The Workday Foundation also provides monetary donations to support the operational expenses of the PulsePoint Foundation.

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Uber Instead of EMS??

Why I Used Uber Instead of an Ambulance

Some people (including me) are choosing Uber over traditional medical transport. Here’s why.
A few weeks ago, I was seriously ill and needed to go to the emergency room. I couldn’t make it to the train, so I tried to hail a cab, but was so depleted that my city hustle failed me and another person grabbed it. I decided to Uber. The fact that it was under three minutes away from where I was standing, doing my best not to die in midtown, was its most alluring feature. When the car arrived, I was as calm as possible so as not to panic the driver.I spent the ride remembering a piece I’d read in which the writer took an Uber in the midst of a life-threatening heart condition. I wondered how many others, against their better judgment, had done the same and why?

Costly Decision
Surge pricing or not, Uber is drastically cheaper than an ambulance. If an ambulance ride is not covered by insurance, it can cost several hundred dollars for a life support ambulance; an advanced life support one costs even more. Mileage and supplies also factor into the price. Whether any of that is covered depends on many things, including municipality (some use tax dollars to cover costs), the patient’s insurance provider, and if the emergency is deemed to be life-threatening.

In my case I spent $100 (thanks, Obama, who was in town that day). Steep for a cab ride, but hundreds of dollars less than I could have paid and certainly worth the comfort and convenience. What’s more, Uber provides an estimate of how much you’ll pay before you ride, which is a considerable advantage over waiting a few weeks for a potentially sky-high ambulance bill.

Time Is of the Essence
The lights and sirens of an ambulance are a reassurance that help is on the way. But there is no accounting for how long it will take from the moment one is called until it arrives. Anyone who lives in a city and has seen emergency vehicles trapped in traffic knows they are in for a very uncertain wait. Dispatchers have real-time maps for ambulances, but there is no patient-facing display.

Uber, however, displays a map of a car’s location. As actress Jaime King said on The Tonight Show, she opted for an Uber when she was in labor because “I know [Uber says] three minutes away and an ambulance you don’t know.”

Define Emergency
Honestly, one of the top reasons why I called an Uber instead of an ambulance was that while I felt awful, I wasn’t sure if my condition required the resources of an ambulance. I did not want to waste time trying to get a receptionist to reach my doctor to have her assess how much care I needed and how fast.

Sometimes, the Uber versus ambulance decision is the call of a medical professional, though it can be just as questionable a choice as if a patient makes it themselves. One man in London who broke his leg in an altercation in which his bike was stolen, called an ambulance only to be told that he was not injured seriously enough to receive care. He took an Uber to a hospital.

Driver Surprise Me
In all of this, though, there is one major person who has not been consulted: the driver. Uber drivers have to put up with all sorts of things, but playing ambulance driver is one of the most extreme.

Driver forums are filled with talk about passengers taking the service in emergencies. Driver reaction varies from willing to worried to fed up. One driver in D.C. had a particularly hairy ride. As he recounted in a post: “When I got there, to my (then) dismay, I see him literally dragging himself towards my car, hand on his chest, stating he was having chest pains and was getting dizzy. I offered to call 911, as the hospital he wanted to go to was over 15 minutes away but he insisted for me to take him.”

An Uber spokesperson told PCMag that the company is proud to have helped with public emergencies. It stayed active following the Boston Marathon bombing, while public transportation was on lockdown, so family members could visit those injured in the hospital. Uber also has a national partnership with the American Red Cross to give rides and donations during community emergencies. But the Uber spokesperson stressed that in individual situations, “Uber isn’t designed to be a substitute for emergency authorities.”

Medical Intervention
Uber has taken initiative to expand into the medical space, though. Last year, it retained Dr. John Brownstein, professor at Harvard Medical and chief innovation officer at Boston Children’s Hospital as its health adviser.

“I think there’s anecdotal evidence of people in emergency situations finding the use of an Uber to be the quickest path when they need help,” Brownstein said, acknowledging but not necessarily agreeing with how patients use Uber. But “I think that there’s overuse of certain types of transportation that could potentially be diverted to less costly forms of transportation,” he said.

Toward that end, Uber formed partnerships with health systems, including MedStar Health and Hackensack University Medical Center, to transport patients to non-emergency medical appointments, something with which rival Lyft is also experimenting. Sometimes the facility will pay some or all of the cost of the ride, as it’s less expensive than a canceled appointment, Brownstein said.

As Uber ramps up its own efforts, there are services that are looking to fully blend Uber and ambulance services, but it’s slow-going so far. Stat came on to the scene three years ago, promising on-demand emergency services in Philadelphia, but it seems to have quietly flatlined.

The real emergency is the need for services that can handle transportation for patients in a convenient and affordable manner. So far, there is no help to be found and patients are left writing prescriptions for Uber for themselves.

How about you????

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Sudden Cardiac Arrest is NOT a Concern . . .

Sudden Cardiac Arrest Is Not on Consumers’ Radar, According to Research from the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation

A new study by the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation, in collaboration with StrataVerve, reveals that although sudden cardiac arrest is the third leading cause of death in the U.S., it is not on the general public’s radar. Researchers call for development of a clear, uniform, consumer-friendly definition of sudden cardiac arrest, emphasizing its urgency and distinguishing it from heart attack.

Consumer health concerns in the U.S., 2015

Consumers do not consider sudden cardiac arrest to be a major health concern, although it is the third leading cause of death in the U.S.

Once people understand the definition of sudden cardiac arrest, they are highly motivated to learn CPR and how to use an AED.

The Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation, in collaboration with StrataVerve, a market research firm, has conducted a national baseline study to determine public awareness and understanding of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Mary Newman, MS, president and co-founder of the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation, and Jennifer Chap, co-founder of StrataVerve, presented study results at the Citizen CPR Foundation’s Emergency Cardiovascular Care Update in San Diego in December.

Researchers applied consumer product research thinking to design an innovative study that blended quantitative and qualitative methods. “To impact the public health crisis of sudden cardiac arrest, we first needed to understand consumer unaided awareness of SCA and any knowledge gaps. Only then could we determine what would motivate someone to learn CPR and how to use an AED,” said Chap. “Surprisingly, we could not find any historical research in which unaided consumer awareness had been studied to determine its relative importance in the consumer mindset.”

Research findings indicate that, although it is the third leading cause of death in the U.S.[1], sudden cardiac arrest is not on consumers’ radar. When respondents were asked the unaided question, “Considering your own health or the health of your loved ones, please list three conditions you are most concerned about,” cancer, heart disease, and diabetes topped the list, but not a single respondent mentioned sudden cardiac arrest out of 3,500+ combined responses. What’s more, when a list of 13 health conditions was provided to respondents, familiarity with sudden cardiac arrest was still extremely low—even among those who have dealt with heart attacks, which increase the risk of sudden cardiac arrest.

When respondents were presented with a definition of sudden cardiac arrest, interest in learning CPR increased from 61% pre-definition to 80% post definition; and interest in learning how to use an AED increased from 33% to 54%. Findings indicate that consumer motivation is driven by a clear understanding of sudden cardiac arrest, its urgency, how it differs from a heart attack, and the fact that it can happen to anyone, anywhere at any time, including a family member or a close friend.

Study conclusions and implications include:

  • Sudden cardiac arrest is not on consumers’ radar, but when it is clearly defined, their motivation to learn CPR and how to use an AED increases.
  • The blurring of heart attack and sudden cardiac arrest may be contributing to unintentional consumer apathy with deadly consequences.
  • The awareness and understanding gap extends even to those who have received CPR training, who report they are uncertain about how to use it and why.
  • Key motivational drivers include: the realization that sudden cardiac arrest can happen to anyone, anywhere, anytime; that immediate CPR can double or triple the chances of survival; and, that free training and convenient practice options are available.
  • Connecting the dots among sudden cardiac arrest, CPR and AEDs is essential for consumer awareness and understanding. What may be obvious to the medical community may not be as clear to average consumers.

“There is an urgent need to create a uniform definition of sudden cardiac arrest in consumer-friendly language and to use it consistently across organizations, the medical community, and the media,” said Newman. “If we are going to save more lives, we need to educate the public about the difference between heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest so that more people understand the critical importance of bystander intervention with CPR and AEDs when cardiac arrest occurs.”

Chap provided further insights. “Our research shows that once people understand the definition of sudden cardiac arrest, they are highly motivated to learn CPR and how to use an AED,” she said. She has a personal connection to the cause. Alerted by her cat Buddy, she helped save her husband Rick’s life by calling 911 and performing CPR when he suffered sudden cardiac arrest at their home in 2012. “When Rick arrested, I too was unaware of sudden cardiac arrest in seemingly healthy people,” she said. “So, I was driven to apply my research expertise to learn how many others like me would be unaware, and what will motivate a person to be prepared to save a life.”

Fielded in November 2015, the quantitative online study included a national representative sample of 1,000 U.S. respondents, plus a benchmark sample of 200 from King County, Washington, an area recognized for its high cardiac arrest survival rates. Samples were provided by Survey Sampling International. In addition, to tease out qualitative insights, in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted in Orlando, Florida at Strategic Artifex with video by Dan Beckmann. Researchers plan to repeat this study every two years to monitor progress.

For more information, click here.

[1] IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2015. Strategies to improve cardiac arrest survival: A time to act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

About the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation
The Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation is a national community benefit 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to raising awareness about sudden cardiac arrest and saving lives. Programs include educational campaigns for secondary schools and colleges and the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Network, an online community that provides peer support and opportunities for survivors and family members to participate in awareness, advocacy, and research initiatives.

About StrataVerve
StrataVerve is a strategic research boutique with expertise in consumer insights, product development and brand strategy across multiple categories and causes. The StrataVerve difference is an integrated, analytic decision-driven approach that leverages findings to reveal the underlying story to inform decisions that drive action.

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Oak Hill Fire Academy – EMS Class 13-2

Here are the links to the suggested answers for the Documentation Exercise.

EMT 13-2 DocEx A-B

EMT 13-2 DocEx C-D

EMT 13-2 DocEx E-F

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Oak Hill Fire Academy Twelve – ICS Study Guide

Here is the Study Guide. Good luck with your courses.

ICS Study Guide


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